Saturday, November 15, 2014

HISTORY OF COSMETICS

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History of cosmetics as well long as the history of mankind. At the same time at different times of the cosmetics brand was given a different meaning. Cosmetics can be used for religious and ornamental purposes, it can be applied by both men and women. Or vice versa - it could be banned. The word "cosmetics" Greek. And, as with the word "space" means "order" - the order of the universe and the order on the person. In ancient Greece were kosmet - slaves, whose job was to swim Greek citizens in special baths with aromatic oils, and they were doing a massage. The word "cosmetics" to designate funds for applying makeup was first used at the International Exhibition in Paris in 1867. It was during this year mylovar and perfumers began to represent their products apart from the production of pharmacists. Cosmetics in Ancient Egypt Makeup used in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia countries. Thus, already in Mesopotamia 5,000 years ago was known lipstick. Lipstick and ancient Egyptian. In ancient Egypt as the lipstick used a mixture on the basis of animal fat with added beeswax and red pigment or red clay. Lipstick in ancient Egypt often had dark shades. Besides lipsticks, Egyptian also used eye shadow, eyeliner, painted nails and hair. Eyes in Ancient Egypt summed by both men and women, while not the purpose to decorate yourself. In those days it was thought that eyeliner protects eyes from penetrating through them into the human soul of evil spirits. Eyeliner Egyptians used paint from antimony (kohl - is still used as a liner in the Muslim world, this black stone, rastolchёnny powder and divorced usually castor oil) and carbon black. Eyelids painted grated malachite green mixture of copper and lead sulfide, ore. By the way, lead and even repels insects. Blush in ancient Egypt were made ​​from raw materials of plants and shrubs. In the minds of Egyptians wore fragrant oil cones, the wearing of which has already been linked with the practical needs - they are protected from insects, which in hot climates had a variety of ancient Egypt. Egyptians painted their nails with henna, as information preserved at the mention of the most famous Egyptian queen Cleopatra. By the way, Cleopatra loved makeup and even wrote a treatise on cosmetics called "Medication for the skin." The first written information about cosmetics are also associated with Ancient Egypt - Papyrus Ebert - the first written document which provides advice on the use of cosmetics. Cosmetics in Ancient Greece Ancient Greece also fond of cosmetics. About cosmetics can be read in the "Odyssey" of Homer, and in the writings of the famous ancient Greek physician Hippocrates, who described a number of tools that allow women to become more beautiful. Greek women painted their lips, rosy cheeks, clarified hair. Mascara Greek girls made ​​of carbon black, the lipstick from cochineal (grass aphid) or with the addition of pigments, red lead, cinnabar, which, incidentally, are poisonous. On the virulence of some cosmetics, and thus their dangers, only later, in Roman times will write physician Claudius Galen. After cinnabar - mercury is a mineral, and red lead - a mineral that contains in its composition is not less harmful to health lead. However, Roman women will still use your lipstick. Ancient Rome and the history of cosmetics in ancient Rome, in contrast to Greece, cosmetics used not only women but also men - sums lips and rosy cheeks. In ancient Rome, as kohl use coal, fucus (seaweed), mostly red - for cheeks and lips, wax - as a way to remove hair, barley flour and butter - to remove acne and pumice - for teeth whitening. The Romans spent much time in the baths, to monitor the purity of the body, as well as a solarium, sunbathing. Cosmetics Ancient Japan and Ancient ChinaIn Japan, women bleached face, shaved eyebrows, and in their place to make two lines thick black ink or painted black circles. Forehead on the edges at the hairline summed ink and brightly painted lips. Use lipstick green. Married women could paint their teeth black lacquer. The men also used cosmetics - drew little mustache, flavoring used, cared for the fingers and toes, using a steam bath. The women of ancient China as well as the Japanese, bleached face and apply blush on the cheeks, elongated eyebrows grow long nails and painted them red. Middle and beauty in medieval Europe were considered fashionable pale, pristine tan face, and the Catholic Church was strongly opposed to any use of cosmetics. The most important thing - it's beauty emotional, but not physical. But, nevertheless, women still tinted lips and rosy cheeks. In the fashion line also included high forehead - and the hair above the forehead could shave, tweeze eyebrows and eyelashes.Fashion on the high line of the forehead and continue later - during the Renaissance. The revival during the Renaissance (Renaissance) faces painted white lead, used lipstick and powder. sell in those days in Italy and the powder on the basis of arsenic. This powder can be bought in a cosmetic shop in the family of Mrs. Tufanov Tofana. Very smart women customers could use a powder not only for cosmetic purposes, but also as a poison - dissolving it in water. His life Mrs. Tufanov graduated at the stake. But her case was continued Theophany di Adamo also from family Tofana. Theophany considered inventor of poison "aqua Tofane", the secret of which has not been disclosed so far. This poison was poison, tasteless and odorless. At the same time he killed a gradual and symptoms of poisoning can easily be confused with symptoms of the disease, such as typhoid fever. The victims of the poison "aqua Tofane" basically become men - husbands and lovers rock Italians. Theophany as the Holy Inquisition was executed. XVII-XVIII century in the XVII and XVIII centuries - Baroque and Rococo - French fashion sets the yard. Makeup in those days was used in large quantities. Used by both men and women - painted bright lipstick lips, rosy cheeks, bleached face - pale complexion was still in vogue, powdered wigs, used a variety of fragrances and perfumes in large quantities. Including, in order to drown out the smell of unwashed bodies, recognized as the Spanish Queen, though still in the XV century, Isabella of Castile - a lifetime she bathed only twice - at birth and on the day of the wedding. Louis XIV, King of France of XVII century, Sun King, also washed several times in my life - and then, on the advice of doctors. In those days the nobles only bathed - in palaces were a basin of water in which they are rinsed his hands and face. Therefore, French aristocrats and ladies of those times did not fragrance scents of lavender and tuberose, and quite different smells. By the way, in Russia has always loved to bathe in the Russian bath, even a simple peasant. During the Rococo fashion for pale faces enhanced - not just the face covered with whitewash, but also blue paint lines summed veins.At the same time against the pale faces were bright red spot stand out lips and rosy cheeks - both women and men. And all this in combination with hairstyles epic proportions. In England, the times of Queen Elizabeth I (the period of the reign of November 17, 1558 - March 24, 1603) Cosmetics contrary tried not to use, considering it harmful to health. While the common belief that makeup gives the skin moisture to evaporate. Not fond of cosmetics and British during the reign of Queen Victoria (XIX century). However, the Englishwoman to give cheeks least some blush before going out, mercilessly pinched and bit their lips in order to make them more vivid color. Makeup in the XIX century in the XIX century, cosmetics will use everywhere, it is not only the nobles and rich women, as it was before, but women with an average income. Cosmetics will become the lot of women, but not men, and its color will no longer be bright and vivid, and approached the normal natural colors by which persons was given a healthy ruddy color. Excessive use of cosmetics and bright make-up will be strongly condemned. In this bright and defiant makeup would be a sign of women of easy virtue. Such a belief is preserved in the minds of many to this day, although the yard long XXI century. Lipstick root word fr. pommade, ital. pomata and armor.pomum - apple, lipstick color - like the color of a ripe apple. The first lipstick-shaped pen was introduced in 1883 in Amsterdam, she was wrapped in silk paper. Lipstick in a tube for the first time introduced the company GUERLAIN. In 1915, the US appeared lipstick in metal packaging, which made ​​it very convenient to use. And already in 1949 in the US there are machines for the production of lipstick in metal and later in plastic tubes. As such, the lipstick is produced to this day.Mascara was first released in the XIX century English merchant originally from France, Eugene Rimmel. A word «rimmel» and to this day in many languages ​​- Turkish, Romanian, Portuguese - denotes mascara. Eyeshadow began producing company Max Factor, the first eyeshadow by Max Factor were developed based on henna. The first foundation was also developed by Max Factor in 1936.

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